Management of construction equipment of the hottes

2022-08-24
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By analyzing the current equipment management mode and types in the construction of large-scale hydropower projects, this paper points out the content of equipment management in the construction of large-scale hydropower projects, and provides a set of methods for the management of construction equipment in the construction of hydropower projects in China. Key words: Construction Equipment Management

By analyzing the current equipment management mode and types in the construction of large-scale hydropower projects, this paper points out the content of construction equipment management in large-scale hydropower projects, and provides a set of methods for the management of construction equipment in hydropower projects in China

key words: construction equipment management

1 construction equipment management mode of hydropower engineering construction

in China's hydropower engineering construction, there are roughly three modes of construction equipment management required:

(1) all construction equipment shall be solved by the construction unit itself, that is, bring their own equipment, such as Lijiaxia and Shuikou power stations. This mode is generally only suitable for small-scale projects and the overall bidding process. For large-scale hydropower projects, this model is difficult to play a role

(2) the construction unit is mainly purchased by the construction unit and transferred to the construction unit for free. For example, Manwan Hydropower Station adopts this mode. This mode makes the relationship between the construction unit and the construction unit unclear, and it is basically not used now

(3) the construction unit (owner) is responsible for purchasing large-scale main construction equipment, and then renting or selling it (in the form of installment payment) to the construction unit for use, such as Yantan Hydropower Station, Fuzhou hotspot plant, Three Gorges Project. This mode is to rent the equipment closely related to the project quality to the construction unit after Party A agrees to purchase it, and enjoy a certain discount. After the completion of the project, the construction unit will resell the contract to the construction unit at a certain price according to the performance of the contract. The advantages of this mode are:

1) make all construction units compete at the same base point in technology

2) it can speed up the depreciation of equipment and promote the technical equipment renewal of hydropower construction enterprises to a virtuous cycle

3) improve the intact rate and utilization rate of equipment, so as to reduce the number of equipment to be purchased and reduce the project cost

4) the construction unit can partially recover the equipment cost in the process of project construction and reduce the equipment parking space

5) equipment entry can be organized according to the project schedule, so as to facilitate the arrangement of transportation and reduce the equipment parking space

6) for imported equipment, relevant procedures can be handled uniformly, and the price preference of national equipment batch purchase can be enjoyed

7) it is conducive to organizing equipment matching, improving the efficiency of equipment use, and improving the technical level of equipment suppliers for on-site technical services

8) various funds can be raised, and the governments of some countries can provide some conditional interest free or interest bearing loans

9) facilitate the acceptance of grants and preferential conditions in procurement contracts

2 classification of construction equipment for hydropower engineering construction

classification according to the purpose of construction equipment:

(1) earthwork equipment: including excavators, drilling machinery, loaders, dump trucks, etc

(2) equipment in the bid section: concrete mixing equipment, horizontal transportation equipment of reinforcement and vertical transportation equipment of reinforcement

(3) cross section equipment: including cable crane and special gantry crane

(4) public equipment: including crane, flatbed truck, rotec tire belt machine, feed hopper, etc

classified by equipment source:

(1) equipment purchased by the construction unit: large and special equipment purchased by the construction unit for the needs of engineering construction

(2) equipment brought by the construction unit: the equipment brought by the winning bidder to complete the project

3 management content of construction equipment for hydropower engineering construction

3.1 early stage management of equipment

early stage management of equipment is the whole process from planning to production, including the conception, investigation, demonstration and decision-making of equipment schemes, the design and manufacture of self-made equipment, the procurement of purchased equipment, ordering, equipment installation, commissioning, trial operation, effect analysis, evaluation and information feedback. The focus of early-stage management is to grasp the purchase of model selection, hire the best, and prevent blindness. For example, there are many large-scale equipment required for the Three Gorges Project. At present, domestic construction enterprises are equipped with little or no equipment, and there is no source of goods in China, so it is necessary to organize ordering or production. Due to the 80% - 90% of the life cycle cost of the equipment, it has been decided in the first half of the equipment. Therefore, the early management of the construction equipment built in the hydropower project is particularly important. If the driver is abnormal, plug in the USB connector again. On the one hand, the owner shall, according to its own plan requirements, directly select suppliers and equipment from suppliers with good reputation, excellent product quality, low price and considerate service, and negotiate the specification, model, performance, technical requirements, quantity, price, delivery date, quality assurance, but the self-sufficiency rate of polarizer, ultra-thin glass substrate, liquid crystal materials and other key materials shall not exceed 10% after-sales service conditions; On the other hand, we should do a good job in the percentage statistical analysis system of the life cycle cost of key equipment construction, estimate and calculate the cost, so as to carry out the calculation and analysis of the economic life and comprehensive efficiency of the equipment, so as to minimize the "life" cost of the equipment. The design department is required to establish an information feedback system for the use of equipment and strive to provide after-sales service

3.2 equipment leasing management

in the construction of hydropower projects, some characteristic equipment is often required, and the investment of these equipment is huge. Therefore, the engineering contractor is unwilling and unable to purchase them. This provides the possibility and necessity for equipment leasing in hydropower project construction. For example, the construction unit (owner) is responsible for purchasing large-scale main construction equipment for the Three Gorges project, and then renting or selling it (in the form of installment payment) to the construction unit for use. However, the owners do not carry out this kind of leasing for the purpose of making profits. It is mainly to serve the project, reasonably avoid taxes, and ensure that the project is completed on schedule with quality and quantity guaranteed. In the construction of hydropower projects, the leasing of equipment generally has the following forms

(1) financial leasing: this method refers to a way in which the leasing company handles the leasing procedures through other leasing companies (generally foreign leasing companies) according to the needs of users, leases the equipment, and then leases it to the enterprise for use. In case of sublease, two contracts are generally signed. However, due to the high rent of this method, it is difficult for a certain height of force measuring engineering contractor to accept it, and it is only used when it is urgently needed

(2) operating lease: it mainly solves the one-time use and temporary short-term needs of enterprises for some large-scale general-purpose equipment and special-purpose equipment, and does not lease the long-term use and ownership of the equipment. Therefore, the centralized commencement ceremony of key projects in Suining in the second quarter of 2017 was held in Shehong County of the city. Compared with financial leasing, it is a leasing method that recovers all or most of the equipment value within the non leasing period. Its characteristics are: short lease term, high rent. Operating lease usually refers to equipment that requires special technology for maintenance, and the technology is updated quickly. Therefore, the lessor is responsible for the maintenance, management and other work. The lessee can terminate the contract halfway after giving notice in advance. The lease term is often shorter than the expected service life of the equipment, because the lessor has to bear the risk of equipment aging and the maintenance and management fee. It is necessary to bear the risk of not renewing the lease or not keeping the purchase before or after the expiration, or the lessee interrupting the agreement in advance, so the rent of operating lease is higher than that of financial lease. The lessor's rental income during the lease term can only recover part of the investment in the equipment, and the recovered part should be made up by the funds obtained from the re lease or multiple leases of the equipment. Operating lease can be divided into the following forms: short-term lease, special lease and maintenance lease

3.3 equipment site management

3.3.1 construction site management

large hydropower project construction, such as the Three Gorges project, is remarkable for its huge scale, unparalleled in the world. For equipment design manufacturers, the motivation to pay attention to engineering lies in the drive and temptation of huge economic benefits. As long as any manufacturer obtains the order of the Three Gorges, in addition to the direct economic benefits, it will also obtain incalculable advertising effects and potential benefits. On the other hand, a considerable part of the investment in the Three Gorges project comes from the Three Gorges construction fund, which is 0.4 cents per kilowatt hour of electricity consumed nationwide. In this way, domestic manufacturers take it for granted that they are one of the investors. Therefore, it is not difficult for us to see that the fierce competition among domestic enterprises, domestic and foreign enterprises in the huge market of hydropower project construction is inevitable. These are favorable conditions for the supply of equipment for the construction of hydropower projects

3.3.2 receiving and inspection

all construction equipment purchased by the construction unit shall be received and accepted by the construction unit. In order to reduce the workload, we should strive to seal all imported equipment into the port, and organize the user units to receive and inspect the goods on site. For the equipment requiring secondary assembly, the production department is generally responsible for the installation and commissioning before the necessary acceptance, but the construction unit should provide assistance and create necessary conditions

3.3.3 equipment pricing

(1) the equipment to be transferred to the construction unit shall be paid in installments for the service life of the equipment in the project plus 3-6 months

(2) in principle, the rent of equipment leased to the construction unit shall be charged annually or half a year. The depreciation period shall be implemented in accordance with relevant regulations

(3) the equipment price consists of the base price of the equipment plus handling charges, domestic freight, relevant taxes and bank interest

(4) equipment base price: the contract ex factory price shall prevail for domestic equipment

(5) imported equipment shall be subject to the contract price (CIF) at the port of China; If the contract is not denominated in RMB, it shall be converted into RMB at the exchange rate on the date of payment

(6) handling fee: refers to the handling fee charged by the relevant domestic departments for the purchase of equipment, such as bank handling fee. The construction unit can charge a certain management fee for its own business. However, this cost should be reduced as much as possible by reducing intermediate links

(7) domestic transportation cost: the cost of transporting domestic equipment from the production plant to the site and imported equipment from Chinese ports to the site

(8) tax: various taxes that should be paid according to national regulations, such as automobile surtax, tariff that cannot be exempted for imported equipment, value-added tax, etc

(9) interest: refers to bank loan interest. It should be charged according to the actual amount. That is, if the equipment is paid to the construction unit by installments. The interest shall be calculated from the date of payment for the equipment to the date when the construction unit pays off the loan in full; In case of leased equipment, it shall be until the end of the lease period. If the loan borrowed by the price unit has not accrued interest before the construction unit pays off, the interest shall not be charged to the construction unit, nor shall all the interest be included in the equipment price

3.3.4 equipment tariff

since the construction of hydropower projects such as the Three Gorges project is a project with a large amount of foreign capital and a large number of imported materials, the owner should negotiate with relevant national departments to establish a customs and a bonded area on the construction site, which plays a certain role in reducing the purchase cost of equipment and reasonably avoiding taxes

3.3.5 after sales service of equipment

for major or batch equipment, the construction unit should require the equipment supplier to set up a technical service center at the construction site to provide technical training and services for equipment users, and set up a parts consignment Center at the same time

(1) construction sheet

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